Single article

Ruvinskaya G.

Screening approaches to identifying pathology of exrapyramidal system in out-patient dental practice

Keywords: extrapyramidal pathology, Parkinson's disease, screening of dental patients

The criteria for screening patients with extrapyramidal disorders when being at a dentist are developed. 142 patients with Parkinson's disease (87 men, 55 women) aged 54–80 years were examined. It was found that the main clinical symptoms of maxillofacial area that may have a certain level of specificity in detection of this disease are – moderate to severe periodontitis (pi by russel 3,8±0,21), dominance of microflora (tannerella forsythensis) in periodontal pockets; sialorrhoea and changes in microelement salivary composition; decrease of discriminatory sensitivity of the tongue and buccal mucosa on the side of the primary motor disorders.


  1. Zaljalova Z.A. Slyunotechenie pri bolezni Parkinsona: prichiny i vozmozhnosti lecheniya [Hypersalivation in Parkinson’s diseases: causes and treatment options]. Zhurnal nevrologii i psikhiatrii [Journal of Neurology and Psychiatry ], 2015, no. 10(2), pp. 58–64.
  2. Ibragimova M.Ya. Vzaimosvyaz’ disbalansa makro- i mikroelementov i zdorov’e naseleniya [The relationship imbalance of macro-and micronutrients and health (review)]. Kazanskii meditsinskii zhurnal [Kazan medical Journal], 2011, no. 92(4), pp. 606–609.
  3. Ruvinskaja G.R. Pokazateli funktsii slyunnykh zhelez i mikroelementnyi portret slyuny u patsientov s bolezn’yu Parkinsona: diagnosticheskoe znachenie [Performance features of the salivary glands and saliva portrait of trace element in patients with Parkinson’s disease: diagnostic value]. Rossijskij stomatologicheskij zhurnal [Russian Dental Journal], 2014, no. 3, pp. 35–39.
  4. Skal’nyy A.V. Khimicheskie elementy v fiziologii i ekologii cheloveka [Chemical elements in human physiology and ecology]. Moscow, Mir Publ., 2004.
  5. Levin O.S., ed. Ekstrapiramidnye rasstroistva vchera, segodnya, zavtra: sb. st. [Extrapyramidal disorders yesterday, today and tomorrow: collected papers]. Moscow, 2013, 328 p.
  6. Dexter D.T., Jenner P. Parkinson disease: from pathology to molecular disease mechanisms. Free Radic Biol Med., 2013, Sep., vol. 62, pp. 132–144.
  7. Fritsch T., Smyth K.A., Wallendal M.S., Hyde T., Leo G., Geldmacher D.S. Parkinson disease: research update and clinical management. South Med J., 2012, Dec., vol. 105(12), pp. 650–656.
  8. Noyce A.J., Bestwick J.P., Silveira-Moriyama L., Hawkes C.H., Giovannoni G., Lees A.J., Schrag A. Meta-analysis of early nonmotor features and risk factors for Parkinson disease. Ann Neurol., 2012, Dec., vol. 72(6), pp. 893–901.
  9. Ohno Y., Shimizu S., Tokudome K. Pathophysiological roles of serotonergic system in regulating extrapyramidal motor functions. Review. Biol Pharm Bull., 2013, vol. 36(9), pp. 396–400.
  10. Remington G. Extrapyramidal Side Effects. Can J Psychiatry, 2015, Sep., vol. 60(9), pp. 412–414.
  11. Savage A. A systematic review of definitions of periodontitis and methods that have been used to identify this disease. Clin. Periodontol., 2009, no. 36, pp. 458–467.
  12. Scapoli L., Girardi A., Palmieri А. Microflora and periodontal disease. Res. J. (Isfahan), 2012, vol. 9(2), pp. 202–206.
  13. Zhang H.Y., Tang H., Chen W.X. et al. Mapping the functional connectivity of the substantia nigra, red nucleus and dentate nucleus: A network analysis hypothesis associated with the extrapyramidal system. Neurosci Lett., 2015, no. 8(606), pp. 36–41.

About authors

Ruvinskaya Guzel Renadovna
candidate of medical sciences, therapeutic, pediatric dentistry and orthodontics department associate professor, Kazan State Medical Academy, Russia, Kazan (; )

Article link

Ruvinskaya G. Screening approaches to identifying pathology of exrapyramidal system in out-patient dental practice [Electronic resource] // Acta medica Eurasica. – 2016. – №2. P. 26-32. – URL: