Single article

DOI: 10.47026/2413-4864-2022-2-50-60

Timofeeva N.Yu., Bubnova N.V., Merkulova L.M., Struchko G.Yu., Stomenskaya I.S., Kostrova O.Yu., Kotelkina A.A.

The Role of the Adrenal Glands in Tumor Metastatic Spreading (Literature Review)

Keywords: metastatic spreading, carcinogenesis, cancer, adrenal glands, cortisol, androgens, estrogen, progesterone, aldosterone, adrenaline, noradrenaline

Oncopathology is one of the main mortality causes in the population. The immediate cause of death in a patient with cancer is metastatic spreading. The study of this pathological process is difficult due to asymptomatic course of the metastatic process, non-specificity of the main clinical analyses, impossibility of in-life studying the process of metastatic spreading. For this reason, laboratory models of metastatic spreading are being investigated, which can be connected both with direct introduction of tumor strains into the organ and with the development of metastases during experimental carcinogenesis. The issue of studying the endocrine system and its influence on the processes of metastatic spreading remains relevant. One of the organs that react to changes in the internal environment is the adrenal glands. The adrenal cortex plays an important role in the body's homeostasis, controlling the amount of cortisol, aldosterone and sex hormones (androgens and a small amount of estrogens), while the adrenal medulla controls stress reactions by discharging adrenaline and norepinephrine. Each of the hormones synthesized by the adrenal glands is somehow involved in the processes of carcinogenesis and metastatic spreading. Thus, cortisol, one of the hormones formed in the adrenal cortex, has a pronounced immunosuppressive effect, it affects the rate of cell proliferation, angiogenesis, differentiation and apoptosis, has a destructive effect on connective tissue. An increase in catecholamines in the blood leads to the damage to biological membranes, which stimulates adhesion and extravasation of tumor cells. In addition, catecholamines stimulate lymphoproliferation. Sex hormones affect not only hormone-dependent tumors of the reproductive system by stimulating cell growth, enhancing uncontrolled cell proliferation and angiogenesis, but tumors of other organs as well. Aldosterone, acting on the vascular wall, promotes the penetration of tumor cells into the vascular bed and their spread throughout the body.

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About authors

Timofeeva Natalya Yu.
Senior Lecturer, Department of Instrumental Diagnostics Department with a Course of Phthisiology, Chuvash State University, Russia, Cheboksary (bla11blabla@yandex.ru; ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7596-0132)
Bubnova Natalia V.
Senior Lecturer, Department of Instrumental Diagnostics Department with a Course of Phthisiology, Chuvash State University, Russia, Cheboksary (natalia210485@yandex.ru; ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2505-0827)
Merkulova Larisa M.
Doctor of Medical Sciences, Professor of Normal and Topographic Anatomy Department, Chuvash State University, Russia, Cheboksary (merkulova192@mail.ru; )
Struchko Gleb Yu.
Doctor of Medical Sciences, Professor, Head of Normal and Topographic Anatomy Department, Chuvash State University, Russia, Cheboksary (glebstr@mail.ru; ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0549-5116)
Stomenskaya Irina S.
Candidate of Medical Sciences, Assistant Professor, Department of the Instrumental Diagnostics with a Course of Phthisiology, Chuvash State University, Russia, Cheboksary (irina.stomenskaja@gmail.com; ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7332-4477)
Kostrova Olga Yu.
Candidate of Medical Sciences, Assistant Professor, Head of Department of the Instrumental Diagnostics with a Course of Phthisiology, Chuvash State University, Russia, Cheboksary (evkbiz@yandex.ru; ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7057-9834)
Kotelkina Anastasiia A.
Candidate of Medical Sciences, Assistant Professor, Department of Normal and Topographic Anatomy Department, Chuvash State University, Russia, Cheboksary (ds6426@chebnet.com; ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5366-5135)

Article link

Timofeeva N.Yu., Bubnova N.V., Merkulova L.M., Struchko G.Yu., Stomenskaya I.S., Kostrova O.Yu., Kotelkina A.A. The Role of the Adrenal Glands in Tumor Metastatic Spreading (Literature Review) [Electronic resource] // Acta medica Eurasica. – 2022. – №2. P. 50-60. – URL: http://acta-medica-eurasica.ru/en/single/2022/2/7/. DOI: 10.47026/2413-4864-2022-2-50-60.